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Stanley 45 - Combination plow plane and beading plane by WoodSkills. Please visit WoodSkills for your woodworking plans, woodworking courses, tutorials and videos. Vintage Stanley combination planes have always intrigued me. Hand plane technology progressed through the centuries with wooden planes making way for metal-bodied planes. Molding, grooving and dado planes, including plow, dado, beading, etc. This translated to having a different wooden plane for each application, and could get cumbersome for the cabinetmaker of the time.

For example, a simple bead can be cut with a 45 since both sides of the profile are in the same geometric plane. Two skates, one at each side of the bead are positioned; one skate, on the main stock is fixed, and the other, part of the sliding section, is secured to the arms.

This same principle is used on a more complex profile, like an ogee; the cutter is fixed in the main stock, and the sliding section is positioned to the other side of the cutter. Problem is, this part of of the cutter is incapable of cutting since the skate, being only laterally adjustable and not vertically adjustable, precludes it from making contact with the wood.

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To address this deficiency, the 55 has a vertically adjustable sliding section, which allows the skate to be moved up or down to expose the leftmost to the main stock portion of an irregular cutter. A long threaded rod accomplishes this.

Also attached to the sliding section is an auxiliary skate, or bottom, which is likewise adjustable both vertically and laterally. This auxiliary bottom is used as extra support to prevent the cutter from gouging into the work hey, wooden molding planes don't do that.

Where this bottom is used is on profiles like ogees, or compositions using the hollows and rounds cutters. The plane can only hold one cutter at a time.

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Its position from the the board's edge is regulated by an adjustable fence. There are two of these fences, which can be used on either side of the plane. The fence that's normally used on the left side of the plane comes with an adjustable face made of rosewoo which can be tilted up to 45 degrees so that chamfers can be worked.

This same face also has a fine adjustment mechanism to allow greater accuracy when positioning the cut's location on the board the fact that the plane has this feature ought to give an indication that setting the plane up is a task unto itself. The right fence also has a rosewood face that can be titled up to 45 degrees, but it uses conventional wood screws to do that. It doesn't have the fine adjustment that the left fence does.

Instead, this fence has a flat outside the side opposite the rosewood facewhich makes it possible to flip the fence around and use this face as a fence. Since the fence is supported by curved arms, this feature allows the plane to be worked farther from the edge than it normally would be. It's very important to position the left and right fences properly in order for the plane to work.

Since the rosewood face can pivot, catastrophic in the planing sense results can occur if particular attention is not paid during set-up.

The rosewood face must be perfectly parallel to the side of the cutter. If it isn't, the plane will bind - the cutter will tend to draw the fence tighter and tighter to the edge, the deeper it cuts - or the plane will ride off the board - the cutter pushes the fence away from the board's edge, the deeper it cuts. Other than missing parts, there are a few things about this plane that should be inspected before you purchase one. Make sure all the parts can be loosened by hand. Stay away from those examples with rusted parts; parts may be siezed and may break when you try to back them out.

The metal rods should have a smooth surface to them; if there's any rust at all on them, the fences will bind when you move them. This can be fixed by removing the rust and then spraying with a machine oil, or, if they are badly rusted, replacing them. Make sure the rosewood on the fences is nice.

You want these rosewood strips smooth and flat so the plane tracks well. If they aren't, you can face them up with a smoothing plane provided there is enough rosewood left before you hit the heads of the fastening screws. Replacing these rosewood strips is no easy chore since they are molded on their backsides to allow their pivoting. There is one metal part that I've seen broken on many of these planes.

How to Identify Stanley Hand Plane Age and Type (Type Study Tool)

It's part 42 below. This L-shaped part has a lot of stress put on it by the center bottom skateif the workman isn't careful when starting the plane. It's very easy to smack this piece on the end of the board, which then causes the piece to move backward at the bottom, and forward at the top.

This piece sits in a shallow track, which can break out over time.

Stanley Plane Identification: How to Identify Antique Stanley Bailey Hand Plane Age and Type? By Joshua T. Farnsworth. Below you will find a tool for Stanley plane identification, specifically dating Stanley planes and identifying the type of your Stanley Bailey woodworking bench hand planes. Stanley 55 Universal Combination Plane. offered - 11 1/2" long with 52 cutters for early models and 55 cutters for late models. If you think the Aussie carpenters only went for the cheap 8-cutter ploughs, think again! This is another plane that made it big down under. The Stanley No and No combination planes were at the end of the evolutionary line of hand planes. Stanley developed this combination plane with an adjustable fence which is capable of accepting an assortment of straight blades, beading planes, and match groove blades.

It was a poorly designed mechanism and was never re-designed. When using the plane, take care to secure this part in place tightly and don't let it whack the end of the board. The captive depth stop, located to the right of the main stock, can sometimes be found with tow holes drilled in it, one forward and one backward of the threaded post.

Planes manufactured during the sweetheart era 's and early 's can be found with this kind of depth stop, but most examples of the plane have a 'solid' depth stop. On some models of the plane, you may note a flat-headed screw that's positioned on the right side of the main stock, below the handle. If you look at your sliding section, just back where the cutter rests, you also may see a small hole drilled there.

It's in this hole where the screw goes, after you remove it from its normal storage place just below the tote. It would be too easy to say that screw is where the chain is fastened to the plane - the same chain that has a shackle on the other end through which the owner's ankle is fastened, but that wouldn't be true. The screw does have a function, like every other screw, nut, bolt, whistle, bell, glitter, etc.

The function of the screw, which also has a washer, is to lend some support to the left side of the cutter, when working a molding on a chamfer, or some similar situation where there is an inordinate amount of force being applied to the sliding section.

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In these cases, the sliding section is taking a good amount of the plane's weight, as well as the downward force you tend to exert on the plane while pushing it, both of which can cause the sliding section to deflect. Furthermore, in the case of molded chamfers, the cutter must be manually fed downward, over successive passes of the plane, for it to cut the orientation of the fences, when they are at right angles to each other, prevents the 'skates' from moving downward into the profile as it forms.

The screw helps to keep the cutter's alignment consistant as it's fed downward. This screw feature was short-lived, and is found on the WWI-era planes and into the sweetheart era.

Stanley probably dropped the feature when the telephones we're ringing off the hook with guys complaining about adding another part to lose on the foolish tool.

How to Setup a Combination Plane Stanley 45 and 55

That, or someone decided the feature was useless, like so many other gizmos the company offered. The following parts come with the standard plane for detailed descriptions of parts common with the 45reference my brain dump on that plane :. Click here for an exploded catalog drawing of the plane ca. The plane was originally provided with 52 cutters, which proves contrary to the popular misconception that the 55 was named thus due to fact that it came equipped with 55 cutters.

It was later offered with 55 cutters, but this was long after the plane was out on the market. Stanley used a nomenclature for their profiles that differed from the standard names used by most of the wooden planemakers.

Stanley planes by numbers. R emember that a one hundred year old plane. has probably gone through many hands and changing fortunes. Some were showered with attention by their former owners, others suffered the worst possible abuse. What Stanley didn't say is that their metal beast, with one cutter in it, weighs a minimum of 7 3/4 lbs. There is no wooden molding plane (other than a wider than usual cornice plane, of a profile the #55 couldn't produce anyway) that weighs that much. Start by reading Patrick Leach's comments on Stanley plane dating. Then check out the Plane Dating Flowchart. If you thirst for heaps of data on plane dating, visit the Plane Type Study or the Plane Feature Timeline. Plane Dating Flowchart Get your bench plane in hand (unless you have it's features memorized) and start answering questions. This.

Their Quarter Hollow is the Ovolo. Their Quarter Round is the Cove. The following cutters are provided with the plane, usually in four separate wooden boxes the numbers in the parentheses are the part number, and it can often be found stamped near the heel of the cutter :. Grecian Ogee.

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Quarter Round and Bead. Reverse Ogee. Roman Ogee. Quarter Hollow. Quarter Round. Reeding 2 bead. It's at this time that the plane had its complement of 55 cutters to match its model number. Optional cutters could be purchased at an additional cost. Stanley also took special orders for custom cutters.

Blank cutters could be purchased, too. A set of extra cutters is worth more than the plane and its compliment of cutters. The following 41 cutters were the standard optional offerings:. Match standard Reeding 3 bead.

Reeding 4 bead.

Ask users of Stanley hand planes which type is the best to use on the bench and you will likely spark up an interesting discussion by Pat Thomas (First posted by This is the first in a series of articles, published in no particular order over the next several . A super nice Stanley # 55 combination plane with all original parts. It wants to go back to work!! Excellent $ SOLD! Stanley # 55 Multi Plane in Original Tall Yellow Box This Stanley # 55 combination plane is in near mint unused condition. It is a sweetheart era . Type 3 Type 13 "Stanley" appears on lever cap. Type 4 Type 14 "Made in USA" appears cast into Type 5 Lateral adjustment lever appears. Size: 63KB.

Reeding 5 bead. The optional sash cutter is an ogee profile, which differs from the standard sash cutter's ovolo profile. The image below shows the common packing method Stanley used for the 55; 4 wooden boxes, with covers not in the images hold the cutters.

Each box has a label to illustrate each cutter within the box. The four boxes illustrated here show the 52 cutters that were offered with the plane when it made its debut. It appears that one of the boxes was made for the Australian market, so don't adjust your display. The plane came packed in many different containers.

The earliest is a finger-jointed chestnut box with a sliding cover. After that, Stanley shipped the tool in a tin box that has a sliding cover. For a short time, they shipped it in an hinged orange painted wooden box that had supports to hold the plane steady these are good boxes in areas prone to earthquakes. Both the metal box and the hinged wooden box were offered during the sweetheart era.

Eventually, Stanley settled upon a stiff pasteboard box, with the earlier ones being tall and slender, and the later ones being more like a common shoebox. It's not too difficult to find this plane in its original box as many of the craftsmen found them convenient to hang onto them to keep the plane's parts from entering the dimension socks enter.

It's also possible to find a good number of the tools in nice craftsman-made boxes. If you're dying to own one of these beasts, it's a better buy to get one complete and in the original box.

You'll eventually grow to hate it, and it's easier to recoup your investment, when you go to sell it, with the tool complete and in its original box. OK, that's enough now. My head hurts just thinking about this monstrosity This is one of Stanley's scarcer planes.

When most woodworkers or anyone who thinks they are see this plane, as well as the 57they think it's for planing into corners. It certainly could do that, but that's not its gig in the woodworker's stand-up act. This translated to having a different wooden plane for each application, and could get cumbersome for the cabinetmaker of the time.

The Stanley No. Stanley developed this combination plane with an adjustable fence which is capable of accepting an assortment of straight blades, beading planes, and match groove blades. This design removed the need to have multiple wooden planes for different sized grooves, dadoes, rabbets and beads.

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This particular series of plane, the Stanley No. It is interesting that if one were to develop a similar-featured plane today, the design would probably look not too much different than the Stanley No.

This particular model, the Stanley No. Each variant was either adopted for manufacturing efficiency or to implement a new feature into the plane. The type I have Type 7B is very likely early vintage.

Introduction: Stanley 45 Combination Plane

The Patrick Leach "Blood and Gore" web site is a great place to visit and determine what vintage your old Stanley or Record plane is. Certain small features are either part of this plane or not, enough to narrow down the production dates of Stanley planes to within a few years of each other.

Did you use this instructable in your classroom?

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Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. For example, my Stanley No. The knob was also moved from the main body to the fence in the very late 's.

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All wood components are original rosewood, the plane body itself is nickel-plated. Very early No. Nickel-plated bodies were introduced afterwards.

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The No. There are spurs or nickers on both the main body skate and the sliding skate, just ahead of the blade.

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The skates are called that either because they skate along the surface of the wood, and they look like ice skates in shape. The skates serve to both support the blade at the rear and to create a bearing surface for the plane to ride in along the board being grooved. The fixed, single skate is sufficient for support of the smallest cutter. I read about and also noticed that there is a large built-in gap ahead of the interchangeable blades which results in a large mouth opening.

This presents an issue with gnarly woods, so it is recommended that straight-grained woods be used. I set the blade for a very light cut to compensate for this, however this translates to many more strokes to arrive at the same point.

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This No. The next variant post- of this Stanley No. I disassembled and cleaned this particular plane to become familiar with the different components.

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I ultimately used cherry and birch. This plane does however easily plow through straight-grained woods creating straight, symmetric and accurate beads, grooves, dadoes in no time! Setup time isn't a whole lot more than a setting up a router and bit in a router table. This can easily be a groove for a drawer bottom. The skate between the main body at the right and the adjustable fence at the left is the sliding, adjustable skate.

Notice the edges of the dual skates are set slightly narrower than the edge of the cutter, this to not inhibit or bind the plane in the groove.

Also notice the dual skates ahead of the cutter have spurs or nickers along their edges, used to score when cutting dadoes cross-grain.

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