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Is it legal and morally acceptable to marry your cousin? The answer varies depending upon your definition of the word "cousin," your location, and your personal or cultural beliefs. There are many degrees and types of cousins. While first cousins are close relatives, second and third cousins are not. Here are a few definitions:.

Go Ask Alice! Get Alice! In Your Box. Dating first cousin. Dear Alice, What are the pros and cons legally and morally of dating your 1st cousin? Signed, Jus' need advice from a 3rd party Dear Jus' need advice from a 3rd party Submit a new response.

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Leave this field blank. Now before he was taken he was commended as having pleased God. Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins. For it is impossible, in the case of those who have once been enlightened, who have tasted the heavenly gift, and have shared in the Holy Spirit, and have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the age to come, and then have fallen away, to restore them again to repentance, since they are crucifying once again the Son of God to their own harm and holding him up to contempt.

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For land that has drunk the rain that often falls on it, and produces a crop useful to those for whose sake it is cultivated, receives a blessing from God. But if it bears thorns and thistles, it is worthless and near to being cursed, and its end is to be burned.

For to this end we toil and strive, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all people, especially of those who believe. Holding fast to the word of life, so that in the day of Christ I may be proud that I did not run in vain or labor in vain.

But made himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. Slaves, obey your earthly masters with fear and trembling, with a sincere heart, as you would Christ, not by the way of eye-service, as people-pleasers, but as servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart, rendering service with a good will as to the Lord and not to man, knowing that whatever good anyone does, this he will receive back from the Lord, whether he is a slave or free.

I have been crucified with Christ. It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me. Behold, a day is coming for the Lor when the spoil taken from you will be divided in your midst. For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city shall be taken and the houses plundered and the women raped. Half of the city shall go out into exile, but the rest of the people shall not be cut off from the city.

Then the Lord will go out and fight against those nations as when he fights on a day of battle. On that day his feet shall stand on the Mount of Olives that lies before Jerusalem on the east, and the Mount of Olives shall be split in two from east to west by a very wide valley, so that one half of the Mount shall move northward, and the other half southward.

And you shall flee to the valley of my mountains, for the valley of the mountains shall reach to Azal. And you shall flee as you fled from the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Then the Lord my God will come, and all the holy ones with him. Blessed is the man whom you discipline, O Lor and whom you teach out of your law. For where you go I will go, and where you lodge I will lodge.

What Are the Cousin Marriage Laws in Your State?

Your people shall be my people, and your God my God. Where you die I will die, and there will I be buried. May the Lord do so to me and more also if anything but death parts me from you.

And I saw a beast rising out of the sea, with ten horns and seven heads, with ten diadems on its horns and blasphemous names on its heads. And the beast that I saw was like a leopard; its feet were like a bear's, and its mouth was like a lion's mouth. And to it the dragon gave his power and his throne and great authority. One of its heads seemed to have a mortal wound, but its mortal wound was healed, and the whole earth marveled as they followed the beast.

Behold, I stand at the door and knock.

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If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and eat with him, and he with me. The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John, who bore witness to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw. Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear, and who keep what is written in it, for the time is near.

John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world. Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Likewise, wives, be subject to your own husbands, so that even if some do not obey the word, they may be won without a word by the conduct of their wives. Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have any consciousness of sins? How much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to serve the living God.

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But when Christ appeared as a high priest of the good things that have come, then through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation he entered once for all into the holy places, not by means of the blood of goats and calves but by means of his own blood, thus securing an eternal redemption. For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the sprinkling of defiled persons with the ashes of a heifer, sanctify for the purification of the flesh, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to serve the living God.

Therefore he is the mediator of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance, since a death has occurred that redeems them from the transgressions committed under the first covenant. I appeal to you for my child, Onesimus, whose father I became in my imprisonment.

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Formerly he was useless to you, but now he is indeed useful to you and to me. I am sending him back to you, sending my very heart. I would have been glad to keep him with me, in order that he might serve me on your behalf during my imprisonment for the gospel, but I preferred to do nothing without your consent in order that your goodness might not be by compulsion but of your own accord.

Cousin marriage was more frequent in Ancient Greeceand marriages between uncle and niece were also permitted there. A Greek woman who became epiklerosor heiress with no brothers, was obliged to marry her father's nearest male kin if she had not yet married and given birth to a male heir. First in line would be either her father's brothers or their sons, followed by her father's sisters' sons.

From the seventh century, the Irish Church only recognized four degrees of prohibited kinshipand civil law fewer.

This persisted until after the Norman conquests in the 11th century and the synod at Cashel in Anthropologist Martin Ottenheimer argues that marriage prohibitions were introduced to maintain the social order, uphold religious morality, and safeguard the creation of fit offspring. This led to a gradual shift in concern from affinal unions, like those between a man and his deceased wife's sister, to consanguineous unions.

By the s, Lewis Henry Morgan - was writing about "the advantages of marriages between unrelated persons" and the necessity of avoiding "the evils of consanguine marriage", avoidance of which would "increase the vigor of the stock". To many, Morgan included, cousin marriage, and more specifically parallel-cousin marriage, was a remnant of a more primitive stage of human social organization. InMassachusetts Governor George N. Briggs appointed a commission to study mentally handicapped people termed " idiots " in the state.

This study implicated cousin marriage as responsible for idiocy. Within the next two decades, numerous reports e. Perhaps most important was the report of physician Samuel Merrifield Bemiss for the American Medical Associationwhich concluded cousin inbreeding does lead to the "physical and mental depravation of the offspring".

Despite being contradicted by other studies like those of George Darwin and Alan Huth in England and Robert Newman in New York, the report's conclusions were widely accepted. These developments led to 13 states and territories passing cousin marriage prohibitions by the s.

Though contemporaneous, the eugenics movement did not play much of a direct role in the bans. George Louis Arner in considered the ban a clumsy and ineffective method of eugenics, which he thought would eventually be replaced by more refined techniques.

By the s, the number of bans had doubled. The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws unanimously recommended in that all such laws should be repealed, but no state has dropped its prohibition. In the Far East, South Korea is especially restrictive with bans on marriage out to third cousins, with all couples having the same surname and region of origin having been prohibited from marrying until TaiwanNorth Koreaand the Philippines also prohibit first-cousin marriage.

China has prohibited first-cousin marriage sinceCurrently according to the Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China"Article 7 No marriage may be contracted under any of the following circumstances: 1 if the man and the woman are lineal relatives by blood, or collateral relatives by blood up to the third degree of kinship. Similarly, in VietnamClause 3, Article 10 of the Vietnamese Law on Marriage and Family forbids marriages on people related by blood up to the third degree of kinship.

Several states of the United States have bans on cousin marriage. Prevalence of marriages up to and including distance of second-degree cousin in the world according to The National Center for Biotechnology Information in Recent data for Brazil indicate a rate of cousin marriage of 1. Consanguinity has decreased over time and particularly since the 19th century.

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First-cousin marriage is allowed in Japanthough the incidence has declined in recent years. China has prohibited first-cousin marriage sincealthough cross-cousin marriage was commonly practised in China in the past in rural areas. The Netherlands has also had a recent debate that has reached the level of the Prime Minister proposing a cousin marriage ban. The proposed policy is explicitly aimed at preventing "import marriages" from certain nations like Morocco with a high rate of cousin marriage.

Critics argue that such a ban would contradict Section 8 of the European Convention on Human Rightsis not based on science, and would affect more than immigrants. While some proponents argue such marriages were banned untilaccording to Frans van Poppel of the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, they are confusing cousin marriage with uncle-niece marriage. Then quite suddenly, after the First World War, cousin marriage became very unusual. By the s, only one marriage in 6, was with a first cousin.

A study of a middle-class London population conducted in the s found that just one marriage in 25, was between first cousins. There has been a great deal of debate in the past few years [ when?

A analysis of infant mortality in Birmingham showed that "South Asian" infants had twice the infant mortality rate and 3 times the rate of infant mortality due to congenital anomalies. The Middle East has uniquely high rates of cousin marriage among the world's regions. All Arab countries in the Persian Gulf currently require advance genetic screening for all prospective married couples. Qatar was the last Persian Gulf nation to institute mandatory screening inmainly to warn related couples who are planning marriage about any genetic risks they may face.

Ahmad Teebi links the increase in cousin marriage in Qatar and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf to tribal tradition and the region's expanding economies. In many Middle Eastern nations, a marriage to the father's brother's daughter FBD is considered ideal, though this type may not always actually outnumber other types.

If more than one relationship exists between spouses, as often results from successive generations of cousin marriage, only the patrilineal one is counted.

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Marriage within the lineage is preferred to marriage outside the lineage even when no exact genealogical relationship is known. Of first marriages, only 84 were between couples unable to trace any genealogical relationship between them.

Of those, in 64, the spouses were of the same lineage. However, of 85 marriages to a second or third wife, in 60, the spouses were of different lineages. Female members of the mother's lineage are seen as only loosely related. Finally, the Baggara Arabs favor MBD marriage first, followed by cross-cousin marriage if the cross cousin is a member of the same surraa group of agnates of five or six generations depth.

Next is marriage within the surra. No preference is shown for marriages between matrilateral parallel cousins. Attitudes in India on cousin marriage vary sharply by region and culture. The family law in India takes into account the religious and cultural practices and they are all equally recognized. For Muslimsgoverned by uncodified personal law, it is acceptable and legal to marry a first cousin, but for Hindusit may be illegal under the Hindu Marriage Actthough the specific situation is more complex.

The Hindu Marriage Act makes cousin marriage illegal for Hindus with the exception of marriages permitted by regional custom. Those who do not wish to marry based on the personal laws governed by religious and cultural practices may opt for marriage under this law. It defines the first-cousin relationship, both parallel and cross, as prohibited.

Conflict may arise between the prohibited degrees based on this law and personal law, but in absence of any other laws, it is still unresolved. Cousin marriage is proscribed and seen as incest for Hindus in North India.

In fact, it may even be unacceptable to marry within one's village or for two siblings to marry partners from the same village. However, for some communities in South Indiait is common for Hindu cross cousins to marry, with matrilateral cross-cousin mother's brother's daughter marriages being especially favored.

In many North Indian communities, such as BrahminsRajputsVaishyasJatsYadavseveryone who is immediately associated with four surnames - own surname that is father's surnamemother's maiden surname, paternal grandmother's maiden surname, maternal grandmother's maiden surname - falls outside the permissible marriage circle.

These surnames are known as the candidate's gotra lit. Any two candidates who want to marry cannot have a common gotra. The marriage is allowed only when all these shakha branches are different for both the candidates, so this automatically rules out closer cousin marriages.

Practices in West India overall are closer to the northern than the southern, but differences exist here again. For instance, in Mumbaistudies done in showed 7. By contrast, in the northern city of New Delhionly 0.

At the other extreme, studies were done in the South Indian state of Karnataka, which contains Bangaloreduring that period show fully one-third of Hindus married to a second cousin or closer. This may be a legacy of the partition of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan, when substantial Muslim migration to Pakistan occurred from the eastern parts of the former unified state of Punjab. Most Indian Muslims, by contrast, are the result of Hindus' conversions to Islam in the 16th century or later.

Consanguinity rates were generally stable across the four decades for which data exist, though second-cousin marriage appears to have been decreasing in favor of first-cousin marriage. In Pakistancousin marriage is legal and common. Reasons for consanguinity are for economic, religious and cultural reasons. Data on cousin marriage in the United States is sparse. It was estimated in that 0.

15 Countries Where It's Chill To Marry Your Cousin (And 3 Where It's NOT) All of us have hot cousins but rarely do we think of dating them, not to speak about marrying. It is actually one of the greatest taboos in modern society. Imagine telling your parents that you are ab. 53 rows  States have various laws regarding marriage between cousins and other close relatives, which involve factors including whether or not the parties to the marriage are half-cousins, double cousins, infertile, over 65, or whether it is a tradition prevalent in a native or ancestry culture, adoption status, in-law, whether or not genetic. Bible Verses about Marrying Cousins. Leviticus ESV / helpful votes Helpful Not Helpful "None of you shall approach any one of his close relatives to uncover nakedness. I am the Lord. You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father, which is the nakedness of your mother; she is your mother, you shall not uncover her nakedness.

To contextualize the group's size, the total proportion of interracial marriages inthe last census year before the end of anti-miscegenation statutes, was 0. Paul and Hamish G. Spencer speculate that legal bans persist in part due to "the ease with which a handful of highly motivated activists-or even one individual-can be effective in the decentralized American system, especially when feelings do not run high on the other side of an issue.

A bill to repeal the ban on first-cousin marriage in Minnesota was introduced by Phyllis Kahn inbut it died in committee. Republican Minority Leader Marty Seifert criticized the bill in response, saying it would "turn us into a cold Arkansas".

She reportedly got the idea after learning that cousin marriage is an acceptable form of marriage among some cultural groups that have a strong presence in Minnesota, namely the Hmong and Somali.

In contrast, Maryland delegates Henry B. Heller and Kumar P. Barve sponsored a bill to ban first-cousin marriages in Andrews Sr. Texas Representative Harvey Hilderbranwhose district includes the main FLDS compound, authored an amendment to a child protection statute to both discourage the FLDS from settling in Texas and to "prevent Texas from succumbing to the practices of taking child brides, incest, welfare abuse and domestic violence".

Laws on dating cousins

And when it happens you have a bad result. It's just not the accepted normal thing. However, this statute was amended in ; while sex with close adult family members including first cousins remains a felony, the more serious penalty now attaches to sex with an individual's direct ancestor or descendant. The U. States have various laws regarding marriage between cousins and other close relatives, which involve factors including whether or not the parties to the marriage are half-cousins, double cousins, infertile, over 65, or whether it is a tradition prevalent in a native or ancestry culture, adoption status, in-law, whether or not genetic counselling is required, and whether it is permitted to marry a first cousin once removed.

Robin Bennett, a University of Washington researcher, has said that much hostility towards married cousins constitutes discrimination. It's a form of discrimination that nobody talks about. People worry about not getting health insurance - but saying that someone shouldn't marry based on how they're related, when there's no known harm, to me is a form of discrimination.

In a different view, William Saletan of Slate magazine accuses the authors of this study of suffering from the "congenital liberal conceit that science solves all moral questions".

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While readily conceding that banning cousin marriage cannot be justified on genetic grounds, Saletan asks rhetorically whether it would be acceptable to legalize uncle-niece marriage or "hard-core incest" between siblings and then let genetic screening take care of the resulting problems.

It gives the example of one mother, Mrs.

She stated that when she has told people about her daughter's marriage, they have been shocked and that consequently she is afraid to mention it. They live in a small Pennsylvania town and she worries that her grandchildren will be treated as outcasts and ridiculed due to their parental status. Another cousin couple stated that their children's maternal grandparents have never met their two grandchildren because the grandparents severed contact out of disapproval for the couple's marriage. This couple withheld their names from publication.

In most societies, cousin marriage apparently is more common among those of low socio-economic status, among the illiterate and uneducated, and in rural areas. Some societies also report a high prevalence among land-owning families and the ruling elite: here the relevant consideration is thought to be keeping the family estate intact over generations. In Pakistan, the ages of the spouses were also closer together, the age difference declining from 6.

A marginal increase in time to first birth, from 1. Predictions that cousin marriage would decline during the late 20th century in areas where it is preferential appear to have been largely incorrect. One reason for this is that in many regions, cousin marriage is not merely a cultural tradition, but is also judged to offer significant social and economic benefits. In South Asia, rising demands for dowry payments have caused dire economic hardship and have been linked to "dowry deaths" in a number of North Indian states.

Where permissible, marriage to a close relative is hence regarded as a more economically feasible choice. Second, improvements in public health have led to decreased death rates and increased family sizes, making it easier to find a relative to marry if that is the preferred choice. Increases in cousin marriage in the West may also occur as a result of immigration from Asia and Africa.

In the short term, some observers have concluded that the only new forces that could discourage such unions are government bans like the one China enacted in In the longer term, rates may decline due to decreased family sizes, making it more difficult to find cousins to marry.

Matrilateral cross-cousin marriage in societies with matrilineal descent meant that a male married into the family his mother's brother, building an alliance between the two families. However, marriage to a mother's sister daughter a parallel cousin would be endogamoushere meaning inside the same descent group, and would therefore fail to build alliances between different groups. Correspondingly, in societies like China with patrilineal descent, marriage to a father's brother's daughter would fail at alliance building.

And in societies with both types of descent, where a person belongs to the group of his mother's mother and father's father but not mother's father or father's mother, only cross-cousin marriages would successfully build alliances.

Whereas in other kinship systems one or another of these cts dominates, in cross-cousin marriage they overlap and cumulate their effects. It differs from incest prohibitions in that the latter employs a series of negative relationships, saying whom one cannot marry, while cross-cousin marriage employs positive relationships, saying whom should marry. Most crucially, cross-cousin marriage is the only type of preferential union that can function normally and exclusively and still give every man and woman the chance to marry a cross-cousin.

Unlike other systems such as the levirate, the sororate, or uncle-niece marriage, cross-cousin marriage is preferential because for obvious reasons these others cannot constitute the exclusive or even preponderant rule of marriage in any group. Cross-cousin marriage divides members of the same generation into two approximately equal groups, those of cross-cousins and "siblings" that include real siblings and parallel cousins.

Consequently, cross-cousin marriage can be a normal form of marriage in a society, but the other systems above can only be privileged forms.

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This makes cross-cousin marriage exceptionally important. Cross-cousin marriage also establishes a division between prescribed and prohibited relatives who, from the viewpoint of biological proximity, are strictly interchangeable. Cross-cousin marriage in effect allowed the anthropologist to control for biological degree by studying a situation where the degree of prohibited and prescribed spouses were equal. Instead, the raison d'etre of cross-cousin marriage could be found within the institution itself.

Of the three types of institution of exogamy rules, dual organization, and cross-cousin marriage, the last was most significant, making the analysis of this form of marriage the crucial test for any theory of marriage prohibitions.

Matrilateral cross-cousin marriage has been found by some anthropological researchers to be correlated with patripotestal jural authority, meaning rights or obligations of the father. According to some theories, in these kinship systems a man marries his matrilateral cross-cousin due to associating her with his nurturant mother. Due to this association, possibly reinforced by personal interaction with a specific cousin, he may become "fond" of her, rendering the relationship "sentimentally appropriate".

Under Leach's model, in systems where this form of marriage segregates descent groups into wife-givers and wife-takers, the social status of the two categories also cannot be determined by a priori arguments. Groups like the Kachin exhibiting matrilateral cross-cousin marriage do not exchange women in circular structures; where such structures do exist they are unstable.

Moreover, the exchanging groups are not major segments of the society, but rather local descent groups from the same or closely neighboring communities. Leach agreed but added that prestations could also take the form of intangible assets like "prestige" or "status" that might belong to either wife-givers or wife-takers. Anthropologists Robert Murphy and Leonard Kasdan describe preferential parallel cousin marriage as leading to social fission, in the sense that "feud and fission are not at all dysfunctional factors but are necessary to the persistence and viability of Bedouin society".

Their thesis is the converse of Fredrik Barth 's, who describes the fission as leading to the cousin marriage.

Legally, you can date and be intimate with your first cousin, but if you are considering marriage, laws vary by state and country. In the U.S., some states legally forbid first cousins from marrying, some require genetic counseling before legal union can take place, and other states require proof that at least one potential spouse is infertile. Myth and Fact About Marriages Between Cousins. In short, yes, it is legal for second and third cousins to marry in the US. Beyong that, state laws get a little more complicated. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures: "Twenty-five . In some cultures, there is a taboo against cousins marrying cousins. That taboo is rooted in rules and laws against incest, and a result of genetic concerns: people who are closely related may share genes for a variety of illnesses and developmental rhodeshotel.net: Sheri Stritof.

Instead of corporate units, Arab society is described as having "agnatic sections", a kind of repeating fractal structure in which authority is normally weak at all levels but capable of being activated at the required level in times of war.

They relate this to an old Arab proverb: "Myself against my brother; my brother and I against my cousin; my cousin, my brother and I against the outsider. This practice is said to possess advantages such as resilience and adaptability in the face of adversity. A recent research study of 70 nations has found a statistically significant negative correlation between consanguineous kinship networks and democracy. The authors note that other factors, such as restricted genetic conditions, may also explain this relationship.

Sailer believes that because families practicing cousin marriage are more related to one another than otherwise, their feelings of family loyalty tend to be unusually intense, fostering nepotism. Cousins are not included in the lists of prohibited relationships set out in the Hebrew Biblespecifically in Leviticus and and in Deuteronomy.

There are several examples in the Bible of cousins marrying. Isaac married Rebekahhis first cousin once removed Genesis - Jacob's brother Esau also married his cousin Mahalathdaughter of Ishmael. According to many English Bible translations, the five daughters of Zelophehad married the "sons of their father's brothers" in the later period of Moses ; although other translations merely say "relatives".

The daughters of Eleazer also married the sons of Eleazer's brother Kish in the still later time of David 1 Chronicles Finally, according to the book of TobitTobias had a right to marry Sarah because he was her nearest kinsman Tobitthough the exact degree of their cousinship is not clear. In Roman Catholicismall marriages more distant than first-cousin marriages are allowed, and first-cousin marriages can be contracted with a dispensation.

At the dawn of Christianity in Roman times, marriages between first cousins were allowed.

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For example, Emperor Constantinethe first Christian Roman Emperor, married his children to the children of his half-brother. First and second cousin marriages were then banned at the Council of Agde in A though dispensations sometimes continued to be granted. By the 11th century, with the adoption of the so-called canon-law method of computing consanguinity, these proscriptions had been extended even to sixth cousins, including by marriage.

But due to the many resulting difficulties in reckoning who was related to whom, they were relaxed back to third cousins at the Fourth Lateran Council in AD Pope Benedict XV reduced this to second cousins in[98] and finally, the current law was enacted in There are several explanations for the rise of Catholic cousin marriage prohibitions after the fall of Rome.

One explanation is increasing Germanic influence on church policy. Howard states, "During the period preceding the Teutonic invasion, speaking broadly, the church adhered to Roman law and custom; thereafter those of the Germans Augustine by the fifth century. Since the 13th century the Catholic Church has measured consanguinity according to what is called, perhaps confusingly, the civil-law method.

Under this method, the degree of relationship between lineal relatives i. However, the degree of relationship between collateral non-lineal relatives equals the number of links in the family tree from one person, up to the common ancestor, and then back to the other person.

Thus brothers are related in the second degree, and first cousins in the fourth degree. Protestant churches generally allow cousin marriage, in keeping with criticism of the Catholic system of dispensations by Martin Luther and John Calvin during the Reformation.

According to Luther and Calvin, the Catholic bans on cousin marriage were an expression of Church rather than divine law and needed to be abolished. Protestants during the Reformation struggled to interpret the Biblical proscriptions against incest in a sensible manner, a task frustrated by facts like their omission of the daughter but inclusion of the granddaughter as a directly prohibited relation.

Why are first cousin marriages allowed in Islam ? by Dr Zakir Naik

The Archbishop of Canterbury reached the same conclusion soon after. The reasoning is that marriage between close relatives can lead to intrafamily strife.

The Catholic Encyclopedia refers to a theory by the Anglican bishop of Bath and Wells speculating that Mary and Josephthe mother of Jesus and her husband, were first cousins. The Qur'an does not state that marriages between first cousins are forbidden.

In Sura An-NisaAllah mentioned the women who are forbidden for marriage: to quote the Qu'ran, " Lawful to you are all beyond those mentioned, so that you may seek them with your wealth in honest wedlock" In Sura Al-Ahzab. O Prophet, indeed We have made lawful to you your wives to whom you have given their due compensation and those your right hand possesses from what Allah has returned to you [of captives] and the daughters of your paternal uncles and the daughters of your paternal aunts and the daughters of your maternal uncles and the daughters of your maternal aunts who emigrated with you and a believing woman if she gives herself to the Prophet [and] if the Prophet wishes to marry her, [this is] only for you, excluding the [other] believers.

We certainly know what We have made obligatory upon them concerning their wives and those their right hands possess, [but this is for you] in order that there will be upon you no discomfort. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful. Muslims have practiced marriages between first cousins in non-prohibited countries since the time of Muhammad.

In a few countries the most common type is between paternal cousins. Muhammad actually did marry two relatives. It was the issue of adoption and not cousinship that caused controversy due to the opposition of pre-Islamic Arab norms. Many of the immediate successors of Muhammad also took a cousin as one of their wives. Umar married his cousin Atikah bint Zayd ibn Amr ibn Nifayl, while Ali married Fatimahthe daughter of his paternal first cousin Muhammad and hence his first cousin once removed.

Although marrying his cousin himself, Umar, the second Caliph, discouraged marrying within one's bloodline or close cousins recurringly over generations and advised those who had done so to marry people unrelated to them, by telling a household that did so, "You have become frail, so marry intelligent people unrelated to you.

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